Overview and Instructions


Research basic facts about instruments of the orchestra.

1. Names of the families
2. Names of the instruments in each family.
3. Picture of each instrument.
4. What each instrument is made of.
5. How each is played.
6. Describe what each instrument sounds like and find an audio or video clip of each.
7. At least 2 interesting facts about each instrument.

May create a web page, wiki page, knowledge map, Ebook, Powerpoint presentation, paper notebook, or complete instrument study books.


Use these websites to research each instrument.


The Music Room
San Francisco Kids
NY Philharmonic Kids
Learn About Instruments
DSO Kids
Oregon Symphony
Play Music
BSO Kids
Simple English Wikipedia
Wikipedia
FlickrCC (free, legal pictures)


Answer the questions below for each instrument.
Highlight It


String Family


Violin


The violin is a string instrument

Picture: Include the web link where you found the picture.
external image moz-screenshot-10.png
A standard modern violin shown from the front and the side
A standard modern violin shown from the front and the side

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Violin_VL100.jpg
What is it made of?The biggest part of the violin is the wooden body. This acts as a resonating box: it amplifies (makes louder) the sound of the vibrating strings. Many of the parts of the violin are named after parts of the body: the front is called the “belly”, the back is the “back”, the sides are the “ribs”. The strings travel from near the top of the “neck” down the “fingerboard” and on to the “tail piece”. Halfway between the end of the fingerboard and the tailpiece the strings go across the bridge. The bridge is not fixed onto the violin. It is held in place because the strings are so tight. If the strings are completely loosened the bridge will come away. The bridge helps to send the vibrations of the strings down to the body of the instrument. Inside the body there is a “soundpost”. This is a small piece of wood, like a small finger, which goes from the belly to the back. The soundpost, too, is held in place by the tension (tightness) of the strings. In the middle of the belly there are two long, curved holes. They are called “f holes” because of their shape. The top of the strings are wound around pegs. The violin can be tuned by turning the pegs. The very top of the neck is called the “scroll”. Many violins also have a chinrest. This helps to hold the violin against the player's shoulder. A shoulder rest is also used. These are now made of foam, with special legs to hold them on to the violin. As these are not particularly cheap, many beginners instead use a sponge and an elastic band.

How is it played?
As with most instruments, it takes years of practice to become a really good violinist. Beginners start by practicing on the “open strings” (without using the left-hand fingers). At first the beginner can pluck the strings, then he or she can learn how to use the bow. Gradually the player can learn how to stop the strings with the fingers to get all the different notes. At first the learner will play in “first position”. This means that finger 1 (the fingers are numbered from 1 to 4, the thumb being behind the neck of the instrument) is playing a note which is a whole tone above the open string. For example, on the D string it is playing a stopped E. When he or she is more advanced the player will play in other positions by moving the left hand up the fingerboard nearer to the bridge. There is also a half position in which the first finger is stretched back.

At least 2 interesting facts.
A person who plays the violin is called a violinist. A person who makes or repairs a violin is called a luthier and,besides plucking (pizzicato) there are many special effects such as glissando, portamento and harmonics as well as double stopping, chords or using scordatura tuning.

Describe its sound. It can be high notes or even really low notes.You have get a lot of practice because it will scratch and make a squeaking sound and can hurt your ears.So practice comes along with that.

Web address where it can be heard.

http://www.playmusic.org/string/violin.html

Viola


A viola (pronounced vee-Oh-la) is a musical instrument which is similar to the violin and cello.

Picture:
A viola shown from the front and the side
A viola shown from the front and the side

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Bratsche.jpg
What is it made of?Inexpensive Chinese 16.5" viola, labeled "2006" Very beautiful piece of art which looks like it was made very well.


How is it played?The viola is played with a bow in the right hand. Playing with the bow is called arco. Sometimes the strings may be plucked (pizzicato).

At least 2 interesting facts.
People who write music often use the viola for harmony notes. It is one of the main instruments in a string quartet, along with two violins and a cello. The viola is found in chamber ensembles of string instruments only, and also in full symphony orchestras where strings, woodwinds, brass, and percussion instruments play together. The viola can also be a solo instrument, but is mostly used in an orchestra.

Describe its sound.The viola has many different sounds like high to low notes similar to the cello.

Web address where it can be heard.

  1. ^ "viola (1) definition". MSN Encarta Dictionary. Microsoft Corporation. http://encarta.msn.com/encnet/features/dictionary/DictionaryResults.aspx?refid=1861734212. Retrieved 2007-12-29.
  2. ^ "Violin and Viola". Oakville Suzuki Association. 2009. http://www.oakvillesuzuki.org/content.php?content_pg_id=5. Retrieved 2009-04-07.
  3. ^ "The Violin Octet". The New Violin Family Association, Inc. 2004-2007. http://www.newviolinfamily.org/8tet.html. Retrieved 2008-03-22.
  4. ^ Maurice, Joseph. "Michael Balling: Pioneer German Solo Violist with a New Zealand Interlude". Journal of the American Viola Society (Summer 2003). http://www.americanviolasociety.org/JAVS%20Online/Summer%202003/Balling/Balling.htm. Retrieved 2006-07-31.

http://www.playmusic.org/string/viola.html


Cello


The cello is an instrument used to play music. Its name comes from the Italian language, so it is pronounced “chello”. The full word is violoncello, but in speaking people normally call it the “cello”.

Picture: Include the web link where you found the picture.
File:Cello front side.jpg
File:Cello front side.jpg
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Cello_front_side.jpg
What is it made of?
Inexpensive Chinese 16.5" cello, labeled "2006"

How is it played?
The parts of the cello are similar to those of the violin. The strings are tuned to C – G – D – A, (low to high) exactly one octave lower than the viola. The cello is played sitting down and holding the instrument between the knees. There is an end-pin which rests on the ground. This is adjustable in height so that the player can put it in a position to make herself (himself) comfortable. The cello is normally played with a bow.

At least 2 interesting facts.
The cello has a deep, rich sound. It starts two octaves below middle C, but can go very high. For the highest notes the player can use “thumb position” (a violinist cannot do this). This means that the left thumb is pressing down on one or two strings high up over the fingerboard. (“high” means “nearer the bridge” where the high notes are. In fact, it is nearer to the floor.). Although cello music is most frequently written in the bass clef, cello music often goes quite high so that the tenor clef or treble clef are used especially in the solo repertory.

Describe its sound.It sounds very deep to me.It goes like thump-boom to me

Web address where it can be heard.
Groves Dictionary of Music & Musicians ed. Stanley Sadie;

http://www.playmusic.org/string/cello.html

Bass


one of several instruments in the bass range
  • Double bass, the largest and lowest pitched bowed string instrument

Picture:
external image moz-screenshot-10.pngcello.jpg violin.jpg
http://www.contrabass.co.uk/images/photo_gallery/burkhart_mager_with_bass.jpg

What is it made of?
different types

How is it played?by blowing on the instruments

At least 2 interesting facts.


Describe its sound.

Web address where it can be heard

http://www.playmusic.org/string/cello.html
http://www.playmusic.org/string/viola.html
http://www.playmusic.org/string/violin.html

Woodwind Family


Flute


The flute is a woodwind instrument.

Picture: Include the web link where you found the picture.

external image 320px-Shinobue_and_other_flutes.jpg[[image:/skins-1.5/common/images/magnify-clip.png width="15" height="11" link="wiki/File:Shinobue_and_other_flutes.jpg"]]
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Shinobue_and_other_flutes.jpg

What is it made of?Flutes were traditionally made of wood, which is why they are called woodwind instruments.

How is it played?
It is played by blowing across a hole in the instrument, rather like blowing over the top of an empty bottle. Flutes overblow at the octave. That means that once you have used up all your fingers for the first octave you can get the notes an octave higher by using the same fingering again but blowing a little harder.

At least 2 interesting facts.
The form of flute used in western classical music is blown from the side and has keys which are pressed with the fingers to cover the holes. This key system was invented in the 19th century by Theobald Boehm. In the Renaissance, keyless cylindrical flutes made in several sizes were often played in groups, or consorts, and sounded best played specific modes.

Describe its sound.
The flute plays a fourth (half an octave) lower than the regular flute. It is longer than the flute. Sometimes alto flutes have a bent part at the top end.The flute must not be confused with a bass flute which is even bigger and lower and very unusual indeed.

Web address where it can be heard
1.0 1.1 Biography. JimiHendrix.com. Retrieved on 5 December 2007.
  1. http://www.playmusic.org/woodwinds/index.html
  2. Jimi Hendrix in the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame. Retrieved on 15 October 2008.
  3. Jimi Hendrix: The Most Influential Guitarist Of All Time?. Retrieved on 15 October 2008.
  4. 100 Greatest Guitarists of all Time - Rolling Stone Magazine]. Retrieved on 15 October 2008.
  5. Mega Essays - Jimi Hendrix. Retrieved on 15 October 2008.

Oboe


An oboe is a woodwind instrument with a double reed. It looks very similar to the clarinet but it sounds very different.

Picture: Include the web link where you found the picture.


.
A modern oboe with a reed
A modern oboe with a reed

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Oboe_modern.jpg
What is it made of?The name oboe comes from French language hautbois, meaning "high wood", a high-pitched woodwind instrument.

How is it played?The sound is produced by blowing air through the double reed at the upper end of the instrument which forces the two reeds to vibrate together which produces the sound. A person that plays the oboe is called an oboist. A typical orchestra may have 2 oboes but sometimes 3. Sometimes there is also a cor anglais which sounds a fifth lower than the oboe.

At least 2 interesting facts.
The oboe came from the shawm which was a medieval and Renaissance instrument. It became popular in the Baroque period. Bach and Handel both used it in most of their orchestral music. Many Italian composers such as Antonio Vivaldi wrote concertos for the instrument, and it is used in a lot of chamber music. At this time it hardly had any keys, but gradually more keys were added which made it easier to play the sharps and flats.

Describe its sound.
A typical orchestra may have 2 oboes but sometimes 3. Sometimes there is also a cor anglais which sounds a fifth lower than the oboe.

Web address where it can be heard
-

http://www.playmusic.org/woodwinds/index.html

Clarinet-

The clarinet is a woodwind instrument.

Picture: Include the web link where you found the picture.



Clarinet||||=
B♭ Clarinet (Boehm system)
B♭ Clarinet (Boehm system)
||

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Clarinet.jpg

What is it made of?One kind of keyed clarinet is called the Albert clarinet. Another kind is called the Boehm clarinet.he reed is attached to the mouthpiece with a ligature usually made out of metal

How is it played?
Blowing through the mouthpiece makes the reed vibrate and therefore makes the sound. The body of the clarinet is a cylindrical tube with holes. The holes are covered by the fingers to make musical notes. There are also keys pressed by the fingers which allow pads over holes to open or close so all notes of the chromatic scale can be played.

At least 2 interesting facts.
The clarinet has one reed. The reed is attached to the mouthpiece with a ligature usually made out of metal. Blowing through the mouthpiece makes the reed vibrate and therefore makes the sound. The body of the clarinet is a cylindrical tube with holes. The holes are covered by the fingers to make musical notes. There are also keys pressed by the fingers which allow pads over holes to open or close so all notes of the chromatic scale can be played

Describe its sound.
The reed is attached to the mouthpiece with a ligature usually made out of metal. Blowing through themouthpiece makes the reed vibrate and therefore makes the sound. The body of the clarinet is a cylindrical tube with holes. The holes are covered by the fingers to make musical notes.

Web address where it can be heard
-Composers Schott-Music: Heinrich Sutermeister

http://www.playmusic.org/woodwinds/index.html

Bassoon-

The bassoon is the lowest of the four main instruments of the woodwind family. Like the oboe, it has a double reed. The reed is attached to a curved metal mouthpiece called a "crook" or "bocal" which is joined to the main part of the instrument.

Picture: Include the web link where you found the picture.



Bassoon||||=
A Renard model 220 bassoon
A Renard model 220 bassoon
||
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:FoxBassoon.jpg

What is it made of?The reed is attached to a curved metal mouthpiece called a "crook" or "bocal" which is joined to the main part of the instrument. This consists of two parts called ‘bass joint’ and ‘wing joint’ (or ‘tenor joint’). These two are joined at the bottom by a U-shaped piece called the ‘boot’. At the top of the instrument is the ‘bell joint’. The instrument is quite heavy. Some players have a neckstrap around their neck to support the weight, but usually they use a seat strap that connects at the bottom of the boot and the strap goes across the floor. The bassoonist then sits on that strap.

How is it played?
The bassoon is held to the right side of the bassoonist and the top of the boot joint is usually level with the players hip. The bassoon, when played right, can sound very beautiful. The bassoon has one of the largest note ranges, going from low B flat to a high F on the top line of the treble clef. The basson can also play in tenor clef, but usually plays bass clef.

At least 2 interesting facts.
Some bassoons have a white, ivory ring round the top of the bell joint. These are German bassoons (called ‘Heckel’). French bassoons (called ‘Buffet’) do not have this ring, and also sound quite different to German bassoons. Bassoons have keys to help the player to cover all the holes, but these keys do not use the Boehm system like the other woodwind instruments. German bassoons use a system called the Heckel system, and French bassoons use the Buffet system.

Describe its sound.Very deep and low for something so little.


Web address where it can be heard-


http://www.playmusic.org/woodwinds/index.html

Saxophone-

saxophone a brass instrument you blow into

Picture: Include the web link where you found the picture.


Saxophone||||=
An alto saxophone in E♭
An alto saxophone in E♭
||
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Saxophone_alto.jpg

What is it made of?metal

How is it played? by blowing on the mouth piece

At least 2 interesting facts.
While proving very popular in its intended niche of military band music, the saxophone is most commonly associated with popular music, big band music, blues, early rock and roll, ska and particularly jazz. There is also a substantial repertoire of concert music in the classical idiom for the members of the saxophone family. Saxophone players are called saxophonists.

Describe its sound.It sounds like a movie ending to me, a serious seen in a movie.

Web address where it can be heard?

http://www.playmusic.org/woodwinds/index.html

Brass Family



Trumpet The trumpet is a musical instrument with the highest register in the brass family. Trumpets are among the oldest musical instruments,[1] dating back to at least 1500 BC. They are constructed of brass tubing bent twice into an oblong shape, and are played by blowing air through closed lips, producing a "buzzing" sound which starts a standing wave vibration in the air column inside the trumpet.


Picture: Include the web link where you found the picture.


Trumpet||||=
B♭ trumpet
B♭ trumpet
||
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Trumpet_1.jpg

What is it made of? it is made of brass

How is it played? by blowing into it

At least 2 interesting facts.
The earliest trumpets date back to 1500 BC and earlier. The bronze and silver trumpets from Tutankhamun's grave in Egypt, bronze lurs from Scandinavia, and metal trumpets from China date back to this period.[2] Trumpets from the Oxus civilization (3rd millennium BC) of Central Asia have decorated swellings in the middle, yet are made out of one sheet of metal, which is considered a technical wonder.[3] The Moche people of ancient Peru depicted trumpets in their art going back to 300 AD. [4] The earliest trumpets were signaling instruments used for military or religious purposes, rather than music in the modern sense;[5] and the modern bugle continues this signaling tradition.

Describe its sound.bum bum bum

Web address where it can be heard.

http://www.playmusic.org/brass/index.html

French Horn
The horn is a brass instrument consisting of about 12 feet (3.7 m) of tubing wrapped into a coil with a flared bell. A musician who plays the horn is called a horn player (or less frequently, a hornist).
Picture: .external image French_horn_front.png

external image moz-screenshot.pngexternal image moz-screenshot-2.pnghttp://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/6/63/French_horn_front.png

How is it played?
by blowing into it
external image moz-screenshot-5.pngexternal image moz-screenshot-6.pngexternal image moz-screenshot-7.pngexternal image moz-screenshot-8.pngexternal image moz-screenshot-9.pngexternal image moz-screenshot-10.pngexternal image moz-screenshot-11.pngexternal image moz-screenshot-13.png
At least 2 interesting factsThe horn is the second highest sounding instrument group in the brass family. Horns are mostly tuned in B or F, or a combination of those. In some traditions, novice players use a single horn in F, while others prefer the B horn. Compared to the other brass instruments in the orchestra, it has a very different mouthpiece, but has the widest usable range - approximately four octaves, depending on the ability of the player. To produce different notes on the horn, one must do many things - the four most important are pressing the valves, holding the appropriate amount of lip tension, blowing air into the instrument, and placing the hand in the bell. More lip tension and faster air produces higher notes. Less lip tension and slower air produces lower notes. The right hand, usually cupped at a "three o-clock" position in the bell, can lower the pitch, depending on how far into the bell the player puts it, by as much as a semitone in the instrument's midrange. The horn plays in a higher portion of its overtone series compared to most brass instruments. Its conical bore (as opposed to the cylindrical bore of the trumpet or trombone) is largely responsible for its characteristic tone, often described as "mellow".


Describe its sound.mmmmmmmmm

Web address where it can be heard.

http://www.playmusic.org/brass/index.html


Trombone- is a brass instrument




Picture: Include the web link where you found the picture.

Trombone||||=
A tenor trombone
A tenor trombone
||
http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/6/6d/Posaune.jpg/120px-Posaune.jpg

What is it made of?
brass
How is it played?by blowing and moving the long piece

At least 2 interesting facts.
The word trombone derives from Italian tromba (trumpet) and -one (a suffix meaning "large"), so the name literally means "large trumpet". Trombones and trumpets share the important characteristic of having predominantly cylindrical bores. Therefore, the most frequently encountered trombones—the tenor and bass trombone—are the tenor and bass counterparts of the trumpet. They are both pitched in B—with the slide all the way in, the notes of the harmonic series based on B can be played—but trombones generally read music in concert pitch.


Describe its sound. bumb bumb

Web address where it can be heard.

http://www.playmusic.org/brass/index.html

Tuba-

The tuba is the largest and lowest pitched brass instrument. Sound is produced by vibrating or "buzzing" the lips into a large cupped mouthpiece. It is one of the most recent additions to the modern symphony orchestra, first appearing in the mid-19th century, when it largely replaced the ophicleide. Tuba is Latin for trumpet or horn. The horn referred to would most likely resemble what is known as a Baroque trumpet.

Picture:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Two_F_tubas.jpg

Two F-tubas, from c.1900 (left) and 2004 (right)
Two F-tubas, from c.1900 (left) and 2004 (right)

What is it made of?

Tubas are found in various pitches, most commonly in F, E-flat, C, or B-flat. The main tube of a B-flat tuba is approximately 18 feet long, while that of a C tuba is 16 feet, of an E-flat tuba 13 feet, and of an F tuba 12 feet. The instrument has a conical bore, meaning the bore diameter increases as a function of the tubing length from the mouthpiece to the bell. The conical bore causes the instrument to produce a preponderance of even-order harmonics.pavillon tournantrecording tubassousaphonebombardon

At least 2 interesting facts. Most music for tuba is written in bass clef in concert pitch, so tuba players must know the correct fingerings for their specific instrument. Traditional British-style brass band parts for the tuba are usually written in treble clef, with the B-flat tuba sounding two octaves and one step below and the E-flat tuba sounding one octave and a major sixth below the written pitch. This allows musicians to change instruments without learning new fingerings for the same written music. Consequently, when its music is written in treble clef, the tuba is a transposing instrument, but not when the music is in bass clef.

Describe its sound.boom boom bump bump as if you was were marching

Web address where it can be heard

Percussion Family


Snare Drum-

of the upper drumhead. The snare drum is considered one of the most imporThe snare drum is a drum with strands of snares made of curled metal wire, metal cable, plastic cable, or gut cords stretched across the drumhead, typically the bottom. Pipe and tabor and some military snare drums often have a second set of snares on the bottom (internal) side of the top (batter) head to make a "brighter" sound, and the Brazilian caixa commonly has snares on the top tant drums of the drum kit.

Picture: Include the web link where you found the picture.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Snaresondrum.jpg

The drum kit
external image 180px-Snaresondrum.jpg

What is it made of?Most snare drums are constructed in plies that are heat- and compression-molded into a cylinder. Steam-bent shells consist of one ply of wood that is gradually rounded into a cylinder and glued at one seam. Reinforcement hoops are generally needed on the inside surface of the drum to keep it perfectly round. Segment shells are made of multiple stacks of segmented wood rings. The segments are glued together and rounded out by a lathe. Similarly, stave shells are constructed of vertically glued pieces of wood into a cylinder (much like a barrel) that is also rounded out by a lathe. Solid shells are constructed of one solid piece of hollowed wood.

How is it played? with sticks

[[#cite_note-3|[4]][[#cite_note-4|[5]][[#cite_note-5|[6]]
At least 2 interesting facts.Snare drums may be made from various wood, metal, or acrylic materials. A typical diameter for snare drums is 14 inches. Marching snare drums are deeper in size than snare drums normally used for orchestral or drum kit purposes, often measuring in at a foot long. Orchestral and drum set snare drum shells are about 6 inches deep. Piccolo snare drums are even more shallow at about 3 inches deep. Soprano, popcorn, and firecracker snare drums have diameters as small as 8 inches and are often used for higher-pitched special effects.[2]

Describe its sound.boom boom bum boo boom boom


Web address where it can be heard.

http://www.playmusic.org/percussion/index.html
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Bass Drum


A bass drum is a relatively large drum that produces a note of low definite or indefinite pitch
Picture: Include the web link where you found the picture.
external image 120px-Revolution_drum_corps_bass_drums.JPG

http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/thumb/d/d5/Revolution_drum_corps_bass_drums.JPG/120px-Revolution_drum_corps_bass_drums.JPG


What is it made of? strings and plastic

How is it played? with sticks

At least 2 interesting facts.
The bass drum is used in orchestral music, ensemble music, concert band music, marching music, and throughout 20th century as a component of the drum kit in jazz, rock and related styles.
In popular music, the bass drum is used to mark time. In marches it is used to project tempo (marching bands historically march to the beat of the bass). A basic beat for rock and roll has the bass drum played on the first and third beats of a bar of common time, with the snare drum on the second and fourth beats, called "back beats". In jazz, the bass drum can vary from almost entirely being a timekeeping medium to being a melodic voice in conjunction with the other parts of the set. In classical music, the bass drum often punctuates a musical impact, although it has other valid uses.

http://www.playmusic.org/percussion/index.html

Timpani

Timpani (also known commonly as kettledrums or kettle drums) are musical instruments in the percussion family.

Picture:
USAFE Band timpanist.jpg
USAFE Band timpanist.jpg

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:USAFE_Band_timpanist.jpg

What is it made of?metal

How is it played? sticks and mattlets

At least 2 interesting facts.Timpani evolved from military drums to become a staple of the classical orchestra by the last third of the 18th century. Today, they are used in many types of musical ensembles including concert, marching percussion, and even some rock bands.

Describe its sound. sound like thunder

Web address where it can be heard.
http://www.playmusic.org/percussion/index.html

Cymbals are a common percussion instrument. Cymbals consist of thin, normally round plates of various alloys; see cymbal making for a discussion of their manufacture. The greater majority of cymbals are of indefinite pitch, although small disc-shaped cymbals based on ancient designs sound a definite note (see: crotales).
external image 180px-2006-07-06_Crash_Zildjian_14.jpgexternal image magnify-clip.png A crash cymbal.

What is it made of? Metal

How is it played? With your hands or with sticks

At least 2 interesting facts.
Cymbals play an important part to Belly Dance. It is not easy to coordinate body and hand movements. Playing cymbals forces one to slow down and really hear the music and sometimes surprising rhythm changes.

Describe its sound.tisssss

Where can it be heard?http://www.playmusic.org/percussion/index.htm




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