erview and Instructions


Research basic facts about instruments of the orchestra.

1. Names of the families
2. Names of the instrumof each instrument.
4. What each instrument is made of.
5. How each is played.
6. Describe what each instrument sounds like and find an audio or video clip of each.
7. At least 2 interesting facts about each

May create a web page, wiki page, knowledge map, Ebook, Powerpoint presentation, paper notebook, or complete instrument study books.


Use these websites to research each instrument.


The Music Room
San Francisco Kids
NY Philharmonic Kids
Learn About Instruments
DSO Kids
Oregon Symphony
Play Music
BSO Kids
Simple English Wikipedia
Wikipedia
FlickrCC (free, legal pictures)


Answer the questions below for each instrument.



String Family


Violin

The violin is a bowed string instrument with four strings usually tuned in perfect fifths. It is the smallest and highest-pitched member of the violin family of string instruments, which also includes the viola and cello.
The violin is sometimes informally called a fiddle, regardless of the type of music played on it. The word "violin" comes from the Middle Latin word vitula, meaning "stringed instrument";[1] this word is also believed to be the source of the Germanic "fiddle".[2] The violin, while it has ancient origins, acquired most of its modern characteristics in 16th-century Italy, with some further modifications occurring in the 18th century. Violinists and collectors particularly prize the instruments made by the Gasparo da Salò, Giovanni Paolo Maggini, Stradivari, Guarneri and Amati families from the 16th to the 18th century in Brescia and Cremona and by Jacob Steiner in Austria.

Picture: www.flickr.com/photos/98227537@N00/2169198455

violin_2.jpg
violin


What is it made of? A violin consists of a body or corpus, a neck, a bridge, a soundpost, four strings, and various fittings. The fittings are the tuning pegs, tailpiece and tailgut, endpin, possibly one or more fine tuners on the tailpiece, and perhaps a chinrest, either attached directly over the tailpiece or to the left of it.

How is it played?
It is possible to play the violin holding it in a variety of ways. Most players hold the lower bout of the instrument between the left shoulder and the jaw, often assisted by a semi-permanently attached chinrest and detachable shoulder rest. If it is held properly under the chin, the violinist can let go of the instrument with their hands and it will stay there firmly. Other common ways to hold the instrument include the seated Carnatic attitude, with the scroll resting on a foot, or the dancing-master's "kit" or "pochette" hold, along the forearm, by the lower margin of the rib cage.

At least 2 interesting facts.
The earliest known four string violin was created by Andrea Amati in 1555. The violin evolved in the mid-sixteenth century from the viol, most notably by the works of Andrea Amati's workshops in Italy. It was further refined in the following centuries by the famous Stradivari workshops.

Describe its sound.

Web address where it can be heard.
http://www.dsokids.com/listen/InstrumentDetail.aspx?instrumentID=29


Viola

The viola is a bowed string instrument. It is the middle voice of the violin family, between the violin and the cello.
The casual observer may mistake the viola for the violin because of their similarity in size, closeness in pitch range (the viola is a perfect fifth below the violin), and nearly identical playing position. However, the viola's timbre sets it apart: its rich, dark-toned sonority is more full-bodied than the violin's. The viola's mellow voice being frequently used for playing inner harmonies, it does not enjoy the wide solo repertoire or fame of the violin. The name of the instrument is properly pronounced ,[1] but often incorrectly pronounced "vye-oh-la" pronounced /vaɪˈoʊlə/ as the word "violet" is spoken
Picture:


Helen%27s+Viola
Helen%27s+Viola
www.flickr.com/photos/80849382@N00/3349414785
What is it made of?

How is it played? The viola is played with a bow and placed on the shoulder, as is the violin, in contrast to the cello, which is placed between the player's legs. In German the viola is the Bratsche, which comes from the Italian braccio, meaning "arm," or to be played on the arm in contrast with being played on the leg. The etymology of the word viola, or viola da braccio, leads some historians to believe that when the violin family emerged as an entity in Italy during the early part of the sixteenth century, the viola may have appeared slightly before the violin, violino being a diminutive form of viola. Violists often like to think that they may indeed have been at the head of the family, at least historically

At least 2 interesting facts.


The viola is the older sister or brother of the violin. It is slightly larger, just over two feet long, and has thicker strings, which produce a richer, warmer sound than the violin. There are usually 10 to 14 violas in an orchestra and they almost always play the harmony. You play the viola the same way as you do the violin, by resting it between your chin and shoulder. Your left hand holds the neck of the viola and presses down on the strings to change the pitch, while your right hand moves the bow or plucks the strings. The viola is slightly larger than the violin and has a deeper pitch in comparision. It is also in the "middle register" of the string family. Although not as popular as the violin, it is still a vital part of the orchestra.



Describe its sound.

Web address where it can be heard.
http://www.dsokids.com/listen/InstrumentDetail.aspx?instrumentID=29

Cello


Picture:
Cello
Cello

www.flickr.com/photos/67017883@N00/2515211411
What is it made of?
The cello is typically made from wood, although other materials such as carbon fibre or aluminum may be used. A traditional cello has a [spruce top, with |maple for the back, sides, and neck. Other woods, such as poplar or willow, are sometimes used for the back and sides. Less expensive cellos frequently have tops and backs made of Plywood aminated wood.
The top and back are traditionally hand-carved, though less expensive cellos are often machine-produced. The sides, or ribs, are made by heating the wood and bending it around forms. The cello body has a wide top bout, narrow middle formed by two C-bouts, and wide bottom bout, with the instrument bridgeand sound holes just below the middle.
The top and back of the cello has decorative border inlay known as purfling. Purfling looks attractive, but is not just for decoration. If a cello is dropped or bumped against something so that damage occurs, the purfling can stop cracks from forming. A crack may form at the rim of the instrument, but will spread no further. Without purfling, cracks can spread up or down the top or back. Playing, traveling and the weather all affect the cello and can increase a crack if purfling is not in place. Less expensive instruments typically have the purfling painted on.


How is it played?--The cello is usually played while seated. Its weight is supported mainly by its endpin or spike, which rests on the floor. Sometimes, an endpin support is needed to prevent the endpin from slipping on smooth surfaces. The cello is steadied on the lower bout between the knees of the seated player, and on the upper bout against the upper chest. The neck of the cello is above the player's left shoulder, and the C-String tuning peg is just behind the left ear. The music bow is drawn horizontally across the strings. In early times, female cellists sometimes played side-saddle, since it was considered improper for a lady to part her knees in public. A player's handedness does not alter the way the cello is held or used. In exceedingly rare cases the cello has been played in a mirror-image posture: this is usually because of a physical disability of one of the player's arms or hands which makes the required technique impossible for that side of the body. In such a situation, the player must decide whether or not to reverse the set-up of the cello (the string positions, bass-bar, sound post, fingerboard shape, and bridge carving are all asymmetrical).

At least 2 interesting facts. The word derives from the Italian violoncello.The cello is used as a solo instrument, in chamber music, and as a member of the string section of an orchestra. It is the second largest bowedstring instrument in the modern|symphony orchestra, the double bassbeing the largest.

Describe its sound--

Web address where it can be heard.http://www.dsokids.com/listen/InstrumentDetail.aspx?instrumentID=29


Bass

HAILING FROM THE EARLY ’80S, THIS BASS IS ONE OF THE first “modern” electric upright basses. Some of the first EUBs were developed independently, beginning in the 1930s by Paul Tutmark, Ampeg, and Framus. This bass was built for me in 1981 by Harry Fleishman, who now lives in Sebastopol, California and runs the International School of Luthiery. There are only four or five of these basses in existence, and this one has been extensively modified over the years—hence its nickname, “The Beast.”In 1977, I saw German bassist Eberhard Weber play a modified Framus in concert in London, and was totally captivated by his beautiful trombone-like tone and expressive melodic playing. A few years later, I saw a listing in Guitar Player for the Fleishman.

Bass (pronounced like the word "base") refers to a variety of musical instruments that can be collectively regarded as bass instruments since they produce tones that are in the low-pitched range. They belong to different families of instruments and can cover a wide range of musical roles. Since producing low pitches usually requires a long air column or string, the string and wind bass instruments are usually the largest instruments in their families or instrument classes.
As seen in the musical instrument classification article, categorizing instruments can be difficult. For example, some instruments fall into more than one category. The cello is considered a tenor instrument in some orchestral settings, but in a string quartet it is the bass instrument.

Picture:
external image moz-screenshot-18.png
external image moz-screenshot-16.pngexternal image moz-screenshot-17.pnghttp://farm4.static.flickr.com/3235/2767654560_d424a8b417.jpgexternal image 2767654560_d424a8b417.jpg
What is it made of?
In general there are two major approaches to the design outline shape of the double bass, these being the violin form, and the viol da gamba form. A third less common design called the busetto shape (and very rarely the guitar or pear shape) can also be found. The back of the instrument can vary from being a round, carved back similar to that of the violin, or a flat and angled back similar to the viol family.
The double bass features many parts that are similar to members of the violin family including a bridge, f-holes, a tailpiece, a scroll and a sound post. Unlike the rest of the violin family, the double bass still reflects influence and can be considered partly derived from the viol family of instruments, in particular the violone, the bass member of the viol family.
The double bass also differs from members of the violin family in that the shoulders are (sometimes) sloped, the back is often angled (both to allow easier access to the instrument, particularly in the upper range), and machine tuners are always fitted. Lack of standardization in design means that one double bass can sound and look very different from another

How is it played?
Double bassists either stand or sit to playing the instrument. When standing, the double bass' height is set (by adjusting the endpin) so that the player may easily place the right hand close to the bridge, either with the bow (arco) or plucking (pizzicato). While personal opinions vary, often the endpin is set by aligning the first finger in either first or half position with the player's eye level. While sitting, a stool (measured by the player's pants inseam length) is used. Traditionally, standing has been preferred by soloists although many now choose to play sitting down. Proponents of playing while sitting on a stool argue that it is easier to perform high-register passages, because they can steady the instrument between the knees.
When playing in the instrument's upper range (above the G below middle C), the player shifts his hand out from behind the neck and flattens it out, using the side of the thumb to press down the string. This technique—also used on the cello—is called thumb position. While playing in thumb position, most player don't use the fourth (little) finger, as it is too weak to produce a reliable tone.


At least 2 interesting facts. The bass is the biggest instrument in the string section. It also plays the widest assortment of music from classical to broadway to jazz.
Although it appears the same size as the cello in the picture, it actually about 1 1/2 to 2 times taller.

Describe its sound.

Web address where it can be heardhttp://www.dsokids.com/listen/InstrumentDetail.aspx?instrumentID=29




Woodwind Family


Flute

The flute is a musical instrument of the woodwind group. Unlike woodwind instruments with reeds, a flute is an aerophone or reedless wind instrument that produces

its sound from the flow of air across an opening. According to the instrument classification of Hornbostel-Sachs, flutes are categorized as Edge-blown aerophones.
A musician who plays the flute can be referred to as a flute player, a flautist, or a flutist.
The flute is made in the form of an open cylindrical air column about 66 cm long. Its fundamental pitch is middle C (C4) and it has a range of about three octaves to C7. Sound is produced from a flute by blowing onto a sharp edge, causing air enclosed in a tube to vibrate.


How is it played?

http://www.utc.edu/Academic/Music/images/2008-09_Events_php/flute2.jpgexternal image flute2.jpg
At least 2 interesting facts. The flute really isn't a woodwind anymore, and is normally made of metal now. It produces very bright and joyful notes.
The modern flute is about 26 inches in length with and inside diameter of about 3/4", open at one end . The embouchure at which the edgetone is produced is near one end and constitutes a second open end, making the flute an open cylinder in harmonic content. As with other edgetone instruments, the tone production is made more efficient by the coupling of the slit formed by the players lips, the edge, and the air column. The flute has a series of 16 openings in the tube wall, 11 of which can be closed directly by seven fingers and one by the left thumb. The four additional openings can be opened or closed by means of suitably arranged keys.


Describe its sound.
http://www.dsokids.com/listen/InstrumentDetail.aspx?instrumentID=21
Web address where it can be heard:


Oboe

The oboe is a double reed musical instrument of the woodwind family. In English prior to 1770, the instrument was called "hautbois", "hoboy", or "French hoboy".[[#cite_note-0|[1]]] The spelling "oboe" was adopted into English ca. 1770 from the Italian oboè, a transliteration in that language's orthography of the 17th-century pronunciation of the French word hautbois, a compound word made of haut ("high, loud") and bois ("wood, woodwind"). A musician who plays the oboe is called an oboist. Careful manipulation of embouchure and air pressure allows the player to express a large range of timbre and dynamicsThe oboe was developed further in the 19th century by the Triebert family of Paris. Using the Boehm flute as a source of ideas for key work, Guillaume Triebert and his sons, Charles and Frederic, devised a series of increasingly complex yet functional key systems. A variant form using large tone holes, the Boehm system oboe, was never in common use, though it was used in some military bands in Europe into the 20th century. F. Lorée of Paris made further developments to the modern instrument. Minor improvements to the bore and key work have continued through the 20th century, but there has been no fundamental change to the general characteristics of the instrument for several decades

Pictureexternal image 1922402891_a3e0fb4d27.jpghttp://farm3.static.flickr.com/2185/1922402891_a3e0fb4d27.jpg

what is it made of: The oboe is a woodwind which can be made of plastic or wood. It is the smallest orchestral double-reed instrument and very important in the orchestra. Because the oboe’s pitch varies little with temperature, the oboe will play the A-note to which all othe instruments in the orchestra will tune to. The oboe also is an important soloist.

The very expressive and almost “exotic” sound of the oboe can play a very emotional part. It’s penetrating sound can also give it very important solos in works for other instruments as well. Often, the oboe player will have a beautiful solo from within an orchestra or during a concerto for another instrument.
Gorgeous as it is, the oboe is a very difficult instrument to learn. While the entire channel of the oboe is very narrow, the reed is downright tiny. Through this tiny reed, the musician must force air at a very high pressure. In doing this, stale air will often accumulate in the lungs and if the musician isn’t careful to expel this air before breathing in, they will feel faint

How is it played?
  1. Allow your reed to soak up to one minute in a cup of water. If you soak it for too long, the reed will be much harder to play, covering the entire cane part of the reed. While the reed soaks, take the bell of the instrument (as the name suggests, this is the wider bell-shaped piece that goes on the bottom on the instrument).
  2. Take the lower joint (the slightly longer part that has the thumb rest) and insert the corked end this joint into the bell, checking for proper alignment. If it is hard to push the joints together, apply cork grease to the cork. Hold the upper joint (the only remaining joint) and insert the corked end into the lower joint, checking for proper alignment. Grease the cork, if needed.
  3. After your reed has soaked for one minute, remove it from the water. Wipe off any excess water from the reed, or blow the water out from the corked end of the reed.
  4. external image 180px-Oboe1.jpg[[image:/skins/common/images/magnify-clip.png width="15" height="11" link="Image:Oboe1.jpg"]]Place the reed in the center of your lower lip and roll your lip over your teeth so they are just covered. Close your lips around the reed. Only the very tip of your reed should be in your mouth.


At least 2 interesting facts.The oboe has several siblings. The most widely known today is the cor anglais, or English horn, the tenor (or alto) member of the family. A transposing instrument; it is pitched in F, a perfect fifth lower than the oboe. The oboe d'amore, the alto (or mezzo-soprano) member of the family, is pitched in A, a minor third lower than the oboe. J.S. Bach made extensive use of both the oboe d'amore as well as the taille and oboe da caccia, Baroque antecedents of the cor anglais. Even less common is the bass oboe (also called baritone oboe), which sounds one octave lower than the oboe. Delius and Holst both scored for the instrument. Similar to the bass oboe is the more powerful heckelphone, which has a wider bore and larger tone than the bass oboe. Only 165 heckelphones have ever been made. Not surprisingly, competent heckelphone players are difficult to find due to the extreme rarity of this particular instrument.

Describe its sound.

Web address where it can be heard

http://www.dsokids.com/listen/InstrumentDetail.aspx?instrumentID=29



Clarinet:

http://home.att.net/~chattanoogaclarinetchoir/bass_clarinet.jpgexternal image bass_clarinet.jpg

Picture: Include the web link where you found the picture. intersalesteaching.co.uk----
What is it made of?
One kind of keyed clarinet is called the Albert clarinet. Another kind is called the Boehm clarinet.he reed is attached to the mouthpiece with a ligature usually made out of metal
How is it played?Blowing through the mouthpiece makes the reed vibrate and therefore makes the sound. The body of the clarinet is a cylindrical tube with holes. The holes are covered by the fingers to make musical notes. There are also keys pressed by the fingers which allow pads over holes to open or close so all notes of the chromatic scale can be played.
At least 2 interesting facts.The clarinet has one reed. The reed is attached to the mouthpiece with a ligature usually made out of metal. Blowing through the mouthpiece makes the reed vibrate and therefore makes the sound. The body of the clarinet is a cylindrical tube with holes. The holes are covered by the fingers to make musical notes. There are also keys pressed by the fingers which allow pads over holes to open or close so all notes of the chromatic scale can be played
Describe its sound.
The reed is attached to the mouthpiece with a ligature usually made out of metal. Blowing through themouthpiece makes the reed vibrate and therefore makes the sound. The body of the clarinet is a cylindrical tube with holes. The holes are covered by the fingers to make musical notes.
Web address where it can be heard:
http://www.dsokids.com/listen/InstrumentDetail.aspx?instrumentID=24

Bassoon


The bassoon is the lowest of the four main instruments of the woodwind family. Like the oboe, it has a double reed. The reed is attached to a curved metal mouthpiece called a "crook" or "bocal" which is joined to the main part of the instrument.


See full size image
See full size image
http://www.free-music-score.com/free_sheetmusic_download/free-scores-basson.htm

What is it made of? The reed is attached to a curved metal mouthpiece called a "crook" or "bocal" which is joined to the main part of the instrument. This consists of two parts called ‘bass joint’ and ‘wing joint’ (or ‘tenor joint’). These two are joined at the bottom by a U-shaped piece called the ‘boot’. At the top of the instrument is the ‘bell joint’. The instrument is quite heavy. Some players have a neckstrap around their neck to support the weight, but usually they use a seat strap that connects at the bottom of the boot and the strap goes across the floor. The bassoonist then sits on that strap.

How is it played? The bassoon is held to the right side of the bassoonist and the top of the boot joint is usually level with the players hip. The bassoon, when played right, can sound very beautiful. The bassoon has one of the largest note ranges, going from low B flat to a high F on the top line of the treble clef. The basson can also play in tenor clef, but usually plays bass clef.

At least 2 interesting facts. Some bassoons have a white, ivory ring round the top of the bell joint. These are German bassoons (called ‘Heckel’). French bassoons (called ‘Buffet’) do not have this ring, and also sound quite different to German bassoons. Bassoons have keys to help the player to cover all the holes, but these keys do not use the Boehm system like the other woodwind instruments. German bassoons use a system called the Heckel system, and French bassoons use the Buffet system.

Describe its sound. Very deep and low for something so little.


Web address where it can be heard- http://www.dsokids.com/listen/InstrumentDetail.aspx?instrumentID=29


Brass Family


Trumpet


What is it made of?

Picture:
trumpet%2C+guitar
trumpet%2C+guitar

www.flickr.com/photos/93193895@N00/2755422500
How is it played?
  1. Keep your air flow constant. The air flow is responsible for the music you make, so learning to control your breath is essential to playing well.
  2. Step 2
Produce low notes by forming your mouth as you would when you say a short "a."
  1. Step 3
Shape your mouth as you do when you say a long "e" to produce high notes.
  1. Step 4
Practice with the mouthpiece alone to perfect your air movement and lip buzzing, as this helps you focus on technique. The faster you buzz your lips, the higher the pitch you'll achieve. Increase your buzzing by pressing your lips together harder.
  1. Step 5
Use your tongue to quickly disrupt the air flow to create a separation between notes or to create vibrato.
  1. Step 6
Slur to shift from one note to another. When properly done, slurring is seamless way to go from one note to the next so that the listener doesn't know when one ends and the other begins.
  1. Step 7
Learn the valve combinations, then practice them until your fingers instinctively reach for the right valves.

At least 2 interesting facts.

Describe its sound.http://www.dsokids.com/listen/InstrumentDetail.aspx?instrumentID=29



Web address where it can be heard.
http://www.dsokids.com/listen/InstrumentDetail.aspx?instrumentID=29





French Horn

The horn is the second highest sounding instrument group in the brass family. Horns are mostly tuned in B or F, or a combination of those. In some traditions, novice players use a single horn in F, while others prefer the B horn. Compared to the other brass instruments in the orchestra, it has a very differentbrass)|mouthpiece]], but has the widest usable range - approximately four octaves, depending on the ability of the player. To produce different notes on the horn, one must do many things - the four most important are pressing the valves, holding the appropriate amount of lip tension, blowing air into the instrument, and placing the hand in the bell. More lip tension and faster air produces higher notes. Less lip tension and slower air produces lower notes. The right hand, usually cupped at a "three o-clock" position in the bell, can lower the pitch, depending on how far into the bell the player puts it, by as much as a semitone in the instrument's midrange. The horn plays in a higher portion of its overtone series compared to most brass instruments. Its conical bore (as opposed to the cylindrical bore of the trumpet or trombone) is largely responsible for its characteristic tone, often described as "mellow".


Picture: Include the web link where you found the picture.
French Horn
French Horn

external image moz-screenshot-1.pnghttp://www.musicwithease.com/french-horn-pictures.html
What is it made of?external image moz-screenshot-2.pngexternal image moz-screenshot-3.png external image moz-screenshot-4.pngexternal image moz-screenshot-5.png external image moz-screenshot-6.pngHorns have valves, operated with the left hand, to route the air into extra tubing to change the pitch. Most horns have lever-operated rotary valves, but some horns like the Vienna horn use piston valves (similar to trumpet valves). A horn without valves is known as a natural horn, changing pitch along the natural harmonics of the instrument (similar to a bugle), but with a wide range of notes due to the long tubing

How is it played? YOU PLACE YOUR HAND BETWEEN THE METAL AND BLOW

At least 2 interesting facts.Early horns were much simpler than modern horns, being comprised of brass tubes with a slightly flared opening (the bell) wound around a few times. These early "hunting" horns were originally played on a hunt, often while mounted, and the sound they produced was called a recheat. Change of pitch was effected entirely by the lips (the horn not being equipped with valves until the 19th century). Without valves, only the notes within the harmonic series are available. The horn was used, among other reasons, to call hounds on a hunt and created a sound most like a human voice, but carried much farther

Describe its sound.IT SOFT AND LOUD

Web address where it can be heard.

http://www.dsokids.com/listen/InstrumentDetail.aspx?instrumentID=32

Trombone


The trombone is a musical instrument in the brass family. Like all brass instruments, sound is produced when the player’s vibrating lips (embouchure) cause the air column inside the instrument to vibrate. The trombone is usually characterised by a telescopic slide with which the player varies the length of the tube to change pitches, although the valve trombone uses three valves similar to those on a trumpet.
The word
trombone derives from Italian tromba (trumpet) and -one (a suffix meaning "large"), so the name literally means "large trumpet". Trombones and trumpets share the important characteristic of having predominantly cylindrical bores. Therefore, the most frequently encountered trombones—the tenor and bass trombone—are the tenor and bass counterparts of the trumpet. They are both pitched in B—with the slide all the way in, the notes of the harmonic series based on B can be played—but trombones generally read music in concert pitch.

Picture: external image moz-screenshot-14.pngexternal image moz-screenshot-15.pngTrombone.jpg
http://flickrcc.bluemountains.net/index.php?terms=trombone&page=2&edit=yes&com=no
.external image moz-screenshot-12.pngexternal image moz-screenshot-13.png

How is it played?The mouthpiece is a separate part of the trombone and can be interchanged with similarly-sized trombones from different manufacturers. Mouthpiece dimensions vary in length, diameter, rim shape, and cup depth. Each variation affects timbre (tone quality), and is a highly personal decision of advanced trombone players. Typically, a symphonic trombonist will choose a mouthpiece with a deeper cup and sharper inner rim shape in order to produce a rich, full-textured tone quality that is desired in most symphony orchestras. A jazz trombonist, on the other hand, may choose a shallower cup in order to achieve a thinner, less Teutonic tone quality. However, these decisions vary from player to player.

At least 2 interesting facts.The instrument was used extensively across Europe from its appearance in the 15th century to a fading out in most places across the mid-late 17th century. It was used in outdoor events, in concert and in liturgical settings. The groups varied from alta capella, wind ensembles, with voices, and in the first 'orchestra'-type ensembles in religious settings such as St. Mark's Venice in the early 17th century. Famous composers writing for the trombone in this period include Giovanni Gabrieli and his uncle Andrea Gabrieli, Claudio Monteverdi and Heinrich Schütz. There is also some solo pieces written specifically for trombone in the early 17th century

Describe its sound.it has a soft beautiful relaxing sound

Web address where it can be heard.
http://www.dsokids.com/listen/InstrumentDetail.aspx?instrumentID=30


Tuba

See full size image
See full size image

See full size image

http://www.lingfieldyouthband.co.uk/tuba.jpg

The tuba is the largest and lowest pitched brass instrument. Sound is produced by vibrating or "buzzing" the lips into a large cupped mouthpiece. It is one of the most recent additions to the modern symphony orchestra, first appearing in the mid-19th century, when it largely replaced the ophicleide. Tuba is Latin for trumpet or horn. The horn referred to would most likely resemble what is known as a Baroque trumpet.


Picture: What is it made of?A tuba with its tubing wrapped for placing the instrument on the player's lap is usually called a concert tuba or simply a tuba. Tubas with the bell pointing forward (pavillon tournant) instead of upward are often called recording tubas because of their popularity in the early days of recorded music, as their sound could more easily be directed at the recording instrument. When wrapped to surround the body for marching, it is traditionally known as a hélicon. The modern sousaphone, named after American bandmaster John Philip Sousa, is a hélicon with the bell pointed up and then curved to point forward. Some ancestors of the tuba, such as the military bombardon, were wrapped so that the bell extended far backwards over the player's shoulder. These instruments were commonly used in military bands during the American Civil War, and are known as "over-the-shoulder saxhorns".

How is it played?
As with all brass instruments, progressive tightening of the lips and increased air pressure allow the player to move to a different partial in the harmonic series. In the first or closed position on a B♭ trombone, the notes in the harmonic series begin with the pedal or fundamental B♭1, followed by B♭2 (one octave higher), F3 (a perfect fifth higher), B♭3 (a perfect fourth higher), D4 (a major third higher), F4 (a minor third higher), A♭4 (a minor third higher; this note is always flat and is not usually played in this position, though it has been the practice in Germany and Austria to do so), B♭4 (a major second higher), C5 (a major second higher), D5 (a major second higher), E♭ (a minor second higher, but very sharp), F5 (a major second higher). Very skilled players with a highly- developed facial musculature can go even higher than this, to G5, A♭5, B♭5 and beyond.
In the lower range, significant movement of the slide is required between positions, which becomes more exaggerated on lower pitched trombones, but for higher notes the player need only use the first four positions of the slide since the partials are closer together, allowing higher notes to be played in alternate positions. As an example, F4 (at the bottom of the treble clef) may be played in first, fourth or sixth position on a B♭ trombone. The note E1 (or the lowest E on a standard 88-key piano keyboard) is the lowest attainable note on a 9' B♭ tenor trombone, requiring a full 2.24 m of tubing. On trombones without an F attachment, there is a gap between B♭1 (the fundamental in first position) and E2 (the first harmonic in seventh position). Skilled players can produce so-called "falset" notes between these, but the sound is relatively weak and not usually used in performance.
Because of the slide's continuous variation, the trombone is one of the few wind instruments that can produce a true glissando, by moving the slide without interrupting the airflow.

At least 2 interesting facts.The most frequently encountered trombones today are the tenor and bass, though as with other Renaissance instruments such as the recorder, the trombone has been built in every size from piccolo to contrabass.The trombone is a musical instrument in the brass family.

Describe its sound.

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Percussion Family


Snare Drum

The snare drum is a drum with strands of snares made of curled metal wire, metal cable, plastic cable, or gut cords stretched across the drumhead, typically the bottom. Pipe and tabor and some military snare drums often have a second set of snares on the bottom (internal) side of the top (batter) head to make a "brighter" sound, and the Brazilian caixa commonly has snares on the top of the upper drumhead. The snare drum is considered one of the most important drums of the drum kit.
Today in popular music, especially with rock drum kits, the snare drum is typically used to play a backbeat pattern[[#cite_note-Schroedl-0|[1]]] such as quarter notes on the backbeat or the slightly more interesting:

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Describe its sound.external image 270px-Backbeat_pattern_snare_drum.png

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Bass Drum

A bass drum is a relatively large drum that produces a note of low definite or indefinite pitch. The bass drums are of variable sizes and are used in several musical genres (see [[#usage|usage]] below). Three major types of bass drums can be distinguished: the large orchestral bass drum, the smaller 'kick' drum, and the pitched bass drums. The type usually seen or heard in orchestral, ensemble or concert band music is the orchestral, or concert bass drum (in italian: gran cassa, gran tamburo). It is the largest drum of the orchestra. The 'kick' drum, struck with a beater attached to a pedal, is usually seen on drum kits. The third type, the pitched bass drum, is generally used in marching bands and drum corps. This particular type of drum is tuned to a specific pitch and is usually played in a set of three to five drums. The bass drum was imported from the Middle East. It is a direct descendant of the davul.[[#cite_note-Vienna_Symphonic_Library-1|[2]]]


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Timpani

Timpani (also known commonly as kettledrums or kettle drums) are musical instruments in the percussion family. A type of drum, they consist of a skin called a head stretched over a large bowl traditionally made of copper, and more recently, constructed of more lightweight fiberglass. They are played by striking the head with a specialized drum stick or timpani mallet. Unlike most drums, they are capable of producing an actual pitch when struck, and can be tuned, often with the use of a pedal mechanism to control each drum's range of notes. Timpani evolved from military drums to become a staple of the classical orchestra by the last third of the 18th century. Today, they are used in many types of musical ensembles including concert, marching percussion, and even some rock bands.
Timpani is an Italian plural, the singular of which is timpano. However, in informal English speech a single instrument is rarely called a timpano: several are more typically referred to collectively as kettledrums, timpani, or simply timps. They are also often incorrectly termed timpanis. A musician who plays the timpani is known as a timpanist//.

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Cymbals

Cymbals are a common percussion instrument. Cymbals consist of thin, normally round plates of various alloys; see cymbal making for a discussion of their manufacture. The greater majority of cymbals are of indefinite pitch, although small disc-shaped cymbals based on ancient designs sound a definite note (see: crotales). Cymbals are used in many ensembles ranging from the orchestra, percussion ensembles, jazz bands, heavy metal bands, and marching groups. Drum kits usually incorporate at least one suspended cymbal and a pair of hi-hat cymbals

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